What is Artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science that probes into the possibility of simulating human intelligence into a machine. John McCarthy, An American computer scientist & cognitive scientist, considered to be the father of AI coined the term “artificial intelligence” in 1956 at the Dartmouth conference.

Since the beginning of computers or machines era, technology has exponentially evolved. Machines and technology have considerably reduced human efforts and helped in increasing efficiency and speed with respect to time and money. Though machines today are not only assisting humans in executing tasks but completely surrogating them, they can understand, think, learn and behave like humans, thanks to Artificial Intelligence or AI.

What Artificial Intelligence comprises of?

Artificial intelligence comprises the following elements of science and technology such as Computer Science, Neuron Science, Human Psychology, Maths, Engineering etc.

 

AI elements

Types of Artificial Intelligence?

AI Comprises of two main types viz Strong AI and Weak AI

Strong AI also termed as artificial general intelligence (AGI) is an AI system consisting of human cognitive thinking abilities, it has the capability to solve generalized unfamiliar tasks. Mathematician Alan Turing in 1950 developed a system termed as ‘Turing Test’ that could decode encrypted enigma codes during the world war his test laid the foundation of AI which is still used today although, the method is controversial.

Weak AI also termed as narrow AI, is a system which is trained, designed and developed to perform specific tasks. Personal assistance on your devices such Microsoft’s Cortana, Apple’s Siri are the narrow AI’s  that uses voice queries and natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, and perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Internet services.

Professor Arend Hintze, Michigan State University researching on the evolution of natural and artificial intelligence has classified AI into four categories

1. Reactive Machines

You might have heard about IBM’s Deep Blue, A cognitive thinking machine which defeated Garry Kasparov, Russian chess grandmaster in a one-on-one competition in 1990. The machine analyses & predicts all the possible moves of its own and its opponent and execute the most strategic and calculated move.

2. Theory of Mind

This category that hasn’t been explored yet. Which digs deeper into integrating human tendencies to think and understand that others have their own beliefs, thoughts, intentions, and desires which have a major impact on their decisions and actions.

3. Limited Memory

This category explores in analysing and studying past experiencing which helps in predicting the future happenings it acts like a RAM memory in your computer systems which stores temporary data and make predictions on that basis.

4. Self-Aware AI

This Category does not exist, though it is considered to be the most advanced form of AI. As the name suggests “self-awareness” that means developing systems that are closest to the human form As quoted ‘God created man in his own image’ similarly we humans are working on creating machines in our own images with conscious minds which can have a sense of self and others with feelings and emotions.

Artificial Intelligence Techniques & Applications?

Machine Learning

Machine learning enables the machine to cognitively learn and process things without programming machine learning comprises a subset of Deep Learning, Deep Learning uses the similar aspect of human learning to gain or enhance a certain type of knowledge, in short, it is the automation of predictive analytics.

Machine learning can be categorized into three learning types viz Supervised Learning, Unsupervised Learning, and Reinforced learning

Supervised Learning: It’s a kind of learning which detects patterns and label the data-sets. It is used to identify new data sets.

Unsupervised Learning: Once the data-sets are labeled they are then sorted according to their similarities and differences this is done under unsupervised learning

Reinforced Learning: Once the actions or several responses are taken they are reported in the form of a feedback with reinforced learning.

Robotics

Robotics probes into developing machines which enables to automate and perform tasks that are not feasible for humans to do or do it consistently. Robotics are used in medical, space agencies and manufacturing industries etc. to perform tedious tasks.

Machine Vision

Machine Vision enables the machine to see, analyse, & capture information with the help of cameras, digital signal processing, & analog to digital conversion. It processes similarly as a human eyesight but it isn’t bound by biological restrictions it helps in imaging-based automatic inspections.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

NLP is a process of processing human languages and not programming or computer languages. It’s used on a higher scale nowadays by various social media platforms such as Facebook & Google which analyses and processes sentiments, feelings, translations & speech recognition’s etc. which eventually helps in focusing targeted audiences.

Innovation and technology have seen tremendous growth in past few decades technologies such as Big Data, Cloud Computing, IoT, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality etc. are really breath taking and gives us a glimpse of the future we are heading towards. It all seems like a fantasy 🙂